The Definitive Reference Guide to Debunking the Vaccine-Autism Myth

Well, okay, not by me. By someone else. I’m copy-pasting everything here and providing the original links at the bottom, as well as a link to a PDF for your own personal use. This list was compiled by Liz Ditz over at the blog I Speak of Dreams.

Ginger Baker, who, from what I’ve heard, is paid to be an anti-vaccine activist (not suspicious at all), had released a Facebook note back in July that cited 81 (originally 76) studies that supposedly support a link between autism and vaccines. Ever since, science- and autism-bloggers have ripped into the list and have managed to debunk the first 72 studies on the list (as for the remaining nine, I’m not sure what the status is). They have a done a far better job than I could hope to have done myself.

I originally said in my only other vaccine-themed post that I never wrote about vaccines on this blog before and will never do it again. This guide, however, was far too good and thorough to pass up. I think that this would be a good point to just fucking end this conversation already.

Anyway, here’s the list (version 2.0, which explains the explanations of any edits):

_______

1. Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002 (original Taylor number = 42)

Correct citation: Gallager CM, Goodman MS, Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:(24):1665-77.

Very weak study with numerous flaws.  Debunked at (among others):

A related study from 2008 by the same team is discussed as paper #43

2. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? (Original Taylor number = 53)

Correct citation: Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Nov;105(11):1489-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.08.008. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Fatally flawed “study” – junk science.  Debunked at:

3.  Infection, vaccines and other environmental triggers of autoimmunity (Not in original Taylor list)

Correct citation: Molina V, Shoenfeld Y. Infection, vaccines and other environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 2005 May;38(3):235-45.

Nothing to do with autism; also seems to be a discursive paper rather than a “research study”.

4. A Positive Association found between Autism Prevalence and Childhood Vaccination uptake across the U.S. Population(Original Taylor number = 51)

Correct citation: Delong G., A positive association found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74(14):903-16. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2011.573736.

Junk “science” debunked here, for starters

5.  B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal (Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation:  Sharpe MA, Taylor LG, Baskin DS B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal J Toxicol. 2013;2013:801517. doi: 10.1155/2013/801517. Epub 2013 Jun 9.

In vitro study, thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines. Only 11 families studied.

6.  Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism(Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation:  Singh VK, Lin SX, Newell E, Nelson C. Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism. J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):359-64.J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):359-64.

Singh’s work has not been replicated.  Multiple studies in multiple countries with tens of thousands of subjects have repeatedly failed to find an association between measles vaccine and autism.

7.  Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism(Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation Singh VK, Lin SX, Yang VC. Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998 Oct;89(1):105-8.

Note that this paper is from 1998. Singh’s work has not been replicated. Multiple studies in multiple countries with tens of thousands of subjects have repeatedly failed to find an association between measles vaccine and autism.

8.  Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism (Original Taylor number = 1)

Correct citation: James SJ, Cutler P, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Janak L, Gaylor DW, Neubrander JA. Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1611-7.

Nothing to do with vaccines.

9.  Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity (original Taylor number = 2)

Correct citation:  Nataf R, Skorupka C, Amet L, Lam A, Springbett A, Lathe R. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environmental toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 15;214(2):99-108. Epub 2006 Jun 16.

“Extremely haphazard science”

Discussion:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/2porphyrinuria-in-childhood-autistic-disorder-implications-for-environmental-toxicity-2006.html

Also has nothing to do with vaccines.

10.  Uncoupling of ATP-mediated Calcium Signaling and Dysregulated IL-6 Secretion in Dendritic Cells by Nanomolar Thimerosal (Original Taylor number=4)

Correct citation: Goth SR, Chu RA, Gregg JP, Cherednichenko G, Pessah IN. Uncoupling of ATP-mediated calcium signaling and dysregulated interleukin-6 secretion in dendritic cells by nanomolar thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jul;114(7):1083-91.

In-vitro study of mouse cells exposed to trace (nano) amounts of thimerosal. Never-replicated.

Discussion:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/4-uncoupling-of-atp-mediated-calcium-signaling-and-dysregulated-interleukin-6-secretion-in-dendritic.html

11.  Comparison of Blood and Brain Mercury Levels in Infant Monkeys Exposed to Methylmercury or Vaccines Containing Thimerosal (Original Taylor number = 6)

Correct citation: Burbacher TM, Shen DD, Liberato N, Grant KS, Cernichiari E, Clarkson T. Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):1015-21.

Discusses methylmercury, which was never used in vaccines, and ethylmercury, the latter of which is thimerosal (which is no longer used in childhood vaccines in the U.S. other than the flu vaccine).  Widely debunked, see for examplehttp://bartholomewcubbins.blogspot.com/2007/01/bc-on-autism-revisiting-burbacher-2005.html“There has been a number of people touting this paper yet only a few have really read it. Here’s the paper in pictures. In short, only about half of the real experiment was done. I can’t speculate why the authors stopped short, but I can say that their decision renders this paper almost worthless.”

Discussion: >http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/6-comparison-of-blood-and-brain-mercury-levels-in-infant-monkeys-exposed-to-methylmercury-or-vaccine.html. Also see the Institute for Vaccine Safety, On Thimerosal in Vaccines

12.  Increases in the number of reactive glia in the visual cortex of Macaca fascicularis following subclinical long-term methyl mercury exposure. (Original Taylor number = 7 )

Correct citation: Charleston JS, Bolender RP, Mottet NK, Body RL, Vahter ME, Burbacher TM. Increases in the number of reactive glia in the visual cortex of Macaca fascicularis following subclinical long-term methyl mercury exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994 Dec;129(2):196-206.

Discusses a form of mercury, methyl mercury, NEVER used in vaccines. The monkeys were exposed to very high doses (50 micrograms Hg/kg body wt/day) every day for months.

There is no research linking increased reactive glia in the visual cortex to autism.

Discussion:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/7-increases-in-the-number-of-reactive-glia-in-the-visual-cortex-of-macaca-fascicularis-following-sub.html

13.  Neuroglial Activation and Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism (Original Taylor number = 8)

Correct citation: Vargas DL, Nascimbene C, Krishnan C, Zimmerman AW, Pardo CA, Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol. 2005 Jan;57(1):67-81.

The lead author wrote, We were concerned that the study would raise a lot of controversy and be misused,” Pardo said. “We were right.”

Also, nothing to do with vaccines.

Discussions:http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/2009/11/23/autism-treatment-science-hijacked-to-support-alternative-therapies/andhttp://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/8-neuroglial-activation-and-neuroinflammation-in-the-brain-of-patients-with-autism-2005-.html

14.  Autism: A Brain Disorder, or A Disorder That Affects the Brain? (Original Taylor number = 9)

Correct citation: Herbert MR, Autism: A Brain Disorder, or A Disorder That Affects the Brain? Clinical Neuropsychiatry 2005 2:(6) 354-379

This is a long opinion piece, draped in sciencey-sounding language.  Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”? No. This paper is merely Herbert’s musings on notions about causation.

15.  Activation of Methionine Synthase by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Dopamine: a Target for Neurodevelopmental Toxins and Thimerosal  (Original Taylor number = 10)

Correct citation: Waly M, Olteanu H, Banerjee R, Choi SW, Mason JB, Parker BS, Sukumar S, Shim S, Sharma A, Benzecry JM, Power-Charnitsky VA, Deth RC, Activation of methionine synthase by insulin-like growth factor-1 and dopamine: a target for neurodevelopmental toxins and thimerosal. Mol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;9(4):358-70.

From the Vaccine Court 2010 Dwyer decision:[Deth’s] own research, most of which was unpublished, unduplicated, or mentioned for the first time during the Theory 2 general causation hearing, was poorly performed and scientifically implausible. Based on in vitro effects of mercury on “neuronal cells,” he claimed that mercury had the same effects on human brain cells.

Discussion in depth:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/10-activation-of-methionine-synthase-by-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-dopamine-a-target-for-neuro.html

16.  Validation of the Phenomenon of Autistic Regression Using Home Videotapes (original Taylor number = 11)

Correct citation: Werner E, Dawson G. Validation of the phenomenon of autistic regression using home videotapes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;62(8):889-95.

The phenomenon of regression in autism is well-known, and in no way validates the idea that vaccines are causal in autism.

Discussion:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/11-validation-of-the-phenomenon-of-autistic-regression-using-home-videotapes-2005-.html

A later Bearman paper characterizes six developmental trajectories in autism,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22473372

17. Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set (original Taylor number=12)

Correct citation: Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. Blood levels of mercury are related to diagnosis of autism: a reanalysis of an important data set. J Child Neurol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1308-11.

The infamous Desoto and Hitlan paper. This was subject to a great deal of critical commentary among scientifically and statistically expert autism parents and other interested observers, for example:

18.  Empirical Data Confirm Autism Symptoms Related to Aluminum and Acetaminophen Exposure (Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation:  Seneff S, Davidson RM, Liu J, Empirical Data Confirm Autism Symptoms Related to Aluminum and Acetaminophen Exposure Entropy 2012, 14(11), 2227-2253; doi:10.3390/e14112227

This shoddy and incompetent paper was discussed at length at:

 

http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2012/11/20/dumpster-diving-in-the-vaers-database-again/

19. Developmental Regression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Child With Autism (Original Taylor number = 13 )

Correct citation:  Poling JS, Frye RE, Shoffner J, Zimmerman AW. Developmental regression and mitochondrial dysfunction in a child with autism. J Child Neurol. 2006 Feb;21(2):170-2.

The scandalous Poling paper:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/07/13-developmental-regression-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-child-with-autism-2006-.html. Kathleen Seidell wrote,

With “Developmental Regression and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Child with Autism”, Dr. Jon Poling takes his place with Dr. Andrew Wakefield, Dr. Mark Geier and Laura Hewitson, Ph.D. in the ranks of researchers who have concealed relevant legal and financial interests in studies purporting to confirm a causal relationship between vaccines and autism.

In short: Dr. Poling behaved in an appalling manner. There is no question that Hannah Poling has a mitochondrial disorder; in such cases neurological symptoms often develop after 12 months and before 24 months. The “autistic like” symptoms demonstrated by Hannah Poling  were part of a global encephalopathy caused by a mitochondrial enzyme deficit.

Does this case or this paper  “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”? No.

20. Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels (original Taylor Number = 14)

Correct Citation: Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.M., B. Lipinski, H. Windom, T. Audhya and W. McGinnis, 2008. Oxidative Stress in Autism: Elevated Cerebellar 3-nitrotyrosine Levels. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 73-84. DOI : 10.3844/ajbbsp.2008.73.84

This study has nothing to do with vaccines, and therefore cannot demonstrate that “vaccines cause autism”.

21. Large Brains in Autism: The Challenge of Pervasive Abnormality (original Taylor number = 15)

Correct citation: Herbert MR. Large brains in autism: the challenge of pervasive abnormality. Neuroscientist. 2005 Oct;11(5):417-40.

http://masslawyersweekly.com/fulltext-opinions/2006/08/21/macgregor-et-al-v-annette-born-et-al/: “Clearly, Dr. Herbert’s method is not generally accepted in the scientific community. Dr. Herbert’s theory of environmental triggers of autism may some day prove true. It has not yet.”

In addition to Herbert’s questionable theorizing, this paper has nothing to do with vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

22. Evidence of Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Neuronal Insult in Autism (original Taylor number = 16)

Correct citation:  Kern JK, Jones AM. Evidence of toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult in autism. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):485-99.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No, this is a review paper rather that a randomized, controlled study of vaccines in autism.

Kern is a co-author on 31 papers.  It is worrying that of those, two are positive studies on secretin and 14 have one or both Geiers as co-authors, including two from 2012 and one from 2011.  In 2012, she was employed by the Geier chemical-castration-for-autism chain.

23. Oxidative Stress in Autism (Original Taylor number = 17)

Correct citation: Chauhan A, Chauhan V. Oxidative stress in autism. Pathophysiology. 2006 Aug;13(3):171-81. Epub 2006 Jun 12.

This is a review article, summarizing the research to date on oxidative stress in autism and some implications for therapies.  The conclusion: “Preliminary results of some of clinical trials have suggested improved behavior in individuals with autism who receive antioxidant therapy.”

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

24. Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors (original Taylor number = 18)

Correct citation: James SJ, Slikker W 3rd, Melnyk S, New E, Pogribna M, Jernigan S. Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors. Neurotoxicology. 2005 Jan;26(1):1-8.

Another in-vitro study with a concentration of thimerosal (no longer used in childhood vaccines in the U.S., with the exception of some flu vaccines) much higher than in vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

25. Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces motor neuron death in mice (Original Taylor number = 19)

Correct citation: Petrik MS, Wong MC, Tabata RC, Garry RF, Shaw CA. Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9(1):83-100.

Mouse model, not a human study. A very small and weak study which has never been replicated.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

26.  Enrichment of Elevated Plasma F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Individuals with Autism Who Are Stratified by Presence of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction (Not in Taylor’s original list)

Correct Citation: Gorrindo P, Lane CJ, Lee EB, McLaughlin B, Levitt P (July 3, 2013) Enrichment of Elevated Plasma F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Individuals with Autism Who Are Stratified by Presence of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction PLoS ONE 8(7): e68444.

This study has nothing to do with vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

27. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas (Original Taylor number = 20)

Correct citation:  Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Stein Z, Mandell D, Miller C. Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas. Health Place. 2006 Jun;12(2):203-9.

In commenting on a later Palmer study, one researcher wrote,“Dr. Palmer’s 2006 study, which was so full of holes that even antivaccinationists had a hard time defending it,”

This study has nothing to do with vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

28.  Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children (Not in original Taylor list)

Correct citation: Holmes AS, Blaxill MF, Haley BE. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. Int J Toxicol. 2003 Jul-Aug;22(4):277-85.

The fatally flawed baby-hair study.

The first flaw in the study is the authors’ acceptance of the idea of “excretion into the hair”. It doesn’t happen. Blood mercury does not equal hair mercury. The second flaw is the data collection methods (the hair used in the study). The third flaw is that the study found that the autistic children had lower hair mercury levels than the neurotypical controls. Rather than accepting that data, the authors went on to spin “tooth fairy tales” to explain why that might be so (the idea that autistic children had impaired mercury excretion). The fourth flaw in the study involves the hair analyzed: the samples had been in storage under unknown conditions for a median of five and a half years.

Do I really need to go on why Holmes et al. is a broken reed? It was, when published, a footling study.

But wait: One more thing you should know: Holmes et al. 2003 authors’ affiliations are given as Safeminds. Safeminds is an acronym for Sensible Action For Ending Mercury Induced Neurological Disorders. Do you think the authors had an ideological point to make?

Discussion:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2011/09/that-baby-hair-study-from-2003.html

This study has nothing to do with vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”? No.

29. A Case Series of Children with Apparent Mercury Toxic Encephalopathies Manifesting with Clinical Symptoms of Regressive Autistic Disorder (Original Taylor number = 22)

Correct Citation: Geier DA, Geier MR., A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 May 15;70(10):837-51.

How anyone could, in 2013, continue to cite the deeply discredited Geier family (father and son) is beyond me. See for example http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/2006/06/20/mark-geier-and-david-geier-carry-on-misrepresenting/ orhttp://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/2006/10/10/mark-geier-david-geier-and-the-vsd/

Those are just criticism of just this paper.  Others from the father-son team garnered even more scathing criticism.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

30. The Changing Prevalence of Autism In California(Original Taylor Number=24)

Correct Citation: Blaxill MF, Baskin DS, Spitzer WO Commentary on on Croen et al. (2002), The Changing Prevalence of Autism in California, J Autism Dev Disord. 2003 April;33(2):223-226

Note the date on this paper: 2003. A decade ago. It is a commentary on a previously published article, which concluded “These data suggest that improvements in detection and changes in diagnosis account for the observed increase in autism; whether there has also been a true increase in incidence is not known.” The Blaxill et al. commentary is merely that, a commentary, and expresses the authors’ own rather biased beliefs.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

31. Mitochondrial Energy-Deficient Endophenotype in Autism(Original Taylor number = 46)

Correct citation Gargus JJ, Imtias F Mitochondrial Energy-Deficient Endophenotype in Autism Am J Biochem Biotechn 2008 4 (2): 198-207.

Vaccines are not mentioned in the paper. It is a discussion of possible rare subtype(s) of autism with genetic mutations causing mitochondrial deficiencies.

Note: this and other papers in this issue were published in a special issue of the American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology supported by Autism Speaks: autismspeaks.org/science/science-news/american-journal-biochemistry-and-biotechnology

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

32. Bridging from Cells to Cognition in Autism Pathophysiology: Biological Pathways to Defective Brain Function and Plasticity (Original Taylor number = 26)

Correct citation: Anderson MP, Hooker BS, Herbert MR, 2008  Bridging from Cells to Cognition in Autism Pathophysiology: Biological Pathways to Defective Brain Function and Plasticity. Am J Biochem Biotechn 2008 4 (2): 167-176..  DOI: 10.3844/ajbbsp.2008.167.176

This is a speculative article on the possible non-genetic causation mechanisms for autism. Vaccines, vaccination, nor immunization are not mentioned in the article.

Note: this and other papers in this issue were published in a special issue of the American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology supported by Autism Speaks, autismspeaks.org/science/science-news/american-journal-biochemistry-and-biotechnology

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

33. Heavy-Metal Toxicity—With Emphasis on Mercury  (Original Taylor Number = 27)

Correct citation: Neustadt J, Pieczenik, S  2007 Heavy-Metal Toxicity – With Emphasis on Mercury (Research Review) 2007 IMJC 6(2) 26-32  (https://stevepieczenik.com/pdf/Heavy%20Metals%20Article.pdfaccessed 7/27/13)

This is an article from a fringe journal for naturopaths.  The article is alarmist about amalgam fillings as a risk of mercury toxicity, but nowhere mentions vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

34. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism and Implications for Treatment (Original Taylor Number = 28)

Correct citation:, Rossignol, DA,  Bradstreet JJ 2008. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism and Implications for Treatment, Am J Biochem Biotechn 2008 4 (2): 208-217.

This study has nothing to do with vaccines.

Note: this and other papers in this issue were published in a special issue of the American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology supported by Autism Speaks:autismspeaks.org/science/science-news/american-journal-biochemistry-and-biotechnology

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

35. Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence (Original Taylor number = 29)

Correct citation:  Palmer RF, Blanchard S, Wood R. Proximity to point sources of environmental mercury release as a predictor of autism prevalence.  Health Place. 2009 Mar;15(1):18-24. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

A deeply flawed paper.

http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2008/05/01/wait-its-not-mercury-in-vaccines-its-mer/: “If [Palmer] has an obvious source of bias, it may well explain much; if he does not I’m left with the less satisfying conclusion that he is just not a very good scientist at all. I also have to wonder about the quality of the peer review of this particular journal. After all, if I, who am not an epidemiologist, can spot the glaring flaws in this study, why couldn’t the peer reviewers?”

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

36. Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder in Portugal: prevalence, clinical characterization, and medical conditions(Original Taylor number = 30)

Correct citation:  Oliveira G, Ataíde A, Marques C, Miguel TS, Coutinho AM, Mota-Vieira L, Gonçalves E, Lopes NM, Rodrigues V, Carmona da Mota H, Vicente AM. Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder in Portugal: prevalence, clinical characterization, and medical conditions. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007 Oct;49(10):726-33.

I was puzzled as to why this paper was included, but the survey found “A diversity of associated medical conditions was documented in 20%, with an unexpectedly high rate of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders.” Poling and others have used this finding to claim that “up to 20% of children with autism have mitochondrial disorders”. The paper does not discuss vaccination at all.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

37. Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria. (Original Taylor number = 31)

Correct citation: Yel L, Brown LE, Su K, Gollapudi S, Gupta S. Thimerosal induces neuronal cell apoptosis by causing cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release from mitochondria. Int J Mol Med. 2005 Dec;16(6):971-7.

An in-vitro study on a specific cell line exposed to high doses of thimerosal.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

38. Mitochondrial mediated thimerosal-induced apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH)(Original Taylor number = 32)

Correct citation: Humphrey ML, Cole MP, Pendergrass JC, Kiningham KK. Mitochondrial mediated thimerosal-induced apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH).Neurotoxicology. 2005 Jun;26(3):407-16.

An in-vitro study on a specific cell line exposed to high doses of thimerosal.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

39. Possible Immunological Disorders in Autism: Concomitant Autoimmunity and Immune Tolerance  (Original Taylor number = 33)

Correct citation: Kawashti MI, Amin OR, Rowehy NG. Possible immunological disorders in autism: concomitant autoimmunity and immune tolerance. Egypt J Immunol. 2006;13(1):99-104.

A small (60 subject)study on differences in immunological profiles between autistic children and typically-developing siblings. Study has not been replicated.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

40. Pediatric Vaccines Influence Primate Behavior, and Amygdala Growth and Opioid Ligand Binding  Friday, May 16, 2008: IMFAR (Original Taylor number = 32)

Laura Hewitson was the lead researcher on a series of studies on comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated macaque monkeys. This was one of three poster presentations at the 2008 meeting of the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR) by Hewiston and others (including Wakefield) on a set of primates. There were other studies that came out of the Hewitson group. The Hewitson publication program was extremeley confusing; a timeline and discussion is available at:http://lizditz.typepad.com/i_speak_of_dreams/2012/05/this-is-going-around-new-study-baby-monkeys-develop-autism-after-routine-cdc-vaccinations.html Others write about Hewitson’s research peccadillos here (a non-exhaustive list):

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

41. Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: An assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink(Original Taylor number =35)

Correct citation:  Young HA, Geier DA, Geier MR. Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. J Neurol Sci. 2008 Aug 15;271(1-2):110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2008.04.002. Epub 2008 May 15.

This paper has to be one of the most thoroughly scrutinized (and debunked) of all the papers that claim a connection between vaccines and autism.

Summarizing the drawbacks of Young et al’s study and write-up is a considerable challenge, frankly because there are so many.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

42. Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration(Original Taylor number = 32)

Correct citation:  Schulz JB, Lindenau J, Seyfried J, Dichgans J.  Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Eur J Biochem. 2000 Aug;267(16):4904-11.

This study does not discuss vaccination or autism.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

43. Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years (Original Taylor number = 37)

Correct citation: Gallagher C, Goodman M 2008. Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years, Toxicol Environ Chem 2008 90(5):997-1008. DOI:10.1080/02772240701806501

A 2013 study found that children with ASD had a lower uptake of HepB,https://imfar.confex.com/imfar/2013/webprogram/Paper12796.html, discussed athttp://www.harpocratesspeaks.com/2013/05/mind-institute-no-difference-in.html

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

44. Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection. (Original Taylor number = 38)

Correct citation:  Minami T, Miyata E, Sakamoto Y, Yamazaki H, Ichida S.  Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010 Apr;26(2):143-52. doi: 10.1007/s10565-009-9124-z. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Studies in mice using a carrier medium.  Does not prove that autism is caused by vaccination, with or without thimerosal.

45. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells (Original Taylor number = 39)

Correct citation: Kempuraj D, Asadi S, Zhang B, Manola A, Hogan J, Peterson E, Theoharides TC. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2010 Mar 11;7:20. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-7-20.

In-vitro study of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) , not ethyl mercury or thimerosal.  Does not “show vaccines cause autism”.

46. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study(Original Taylor=34)

Correct citation:  Hewitson L, Lopresti BJ, Stott C, Mason NS, Tomko J. Influence of pediatric vaccines on amygdala growth and opioid ligand binding in rhesus macaque infants: A pilot study.  Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):147-64.

Another of the infamous, ever evolving Hewitson macaque papers.

Debunked at

Note: This issue of Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis (ANE) focused upon autism. Not just autism, but autism causation with papers on vaccines, acetaminophen and, of course, mercury. The idea for this focus edition came from Professor Dorota Majewska who holds the EU Marie Curie Chair at the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, Poland. The authors for this focus issue are largely the same as those from a conference Prof. Majewska organized in 2008, Autism and Vaccinations.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

47. Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge. (Original Taylor number = 41)

Correct citation:  Walker SJ, Segal J, Aschner M. Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Sep;27(5):685-92. Epub 2006 Jun 16.

An in-vitro cell study, thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), using concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

48. Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats. (Original Taylor number = 59)

Correct citatons: Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Majewska MD. 2009 Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats. Brain Res. 2009 Dec 8;1301:143-51. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.09.003. Epub 2009 Sep 9.

Rat study on injected thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines) in concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines. Note: lead researcher M Dorota Majewska seems to have specialized in rat studies that show thimerosal damage.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

49. Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence (Original Taylor number = 44)

Correct citation:  Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence.  Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):165-76.

Debunked at http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/2010/08/03/prof-desoto-discusses-mercury-and-autism/

Note: This issue of Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis (ANE) focused upon autism. Not just autism, but autism causation with papers on vaccines, acetaminophen and, of course, mercury. The idea for this focus edition came from Professor Dorota Majewska who holds the EU Marie Curie Chair at the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, Poland. The authors for this focus issue are largely the same as those from a conference Prof. Majewska organized in 2008, Autism and Vaccinations.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

50. Urinary Porphyrin Excretion in Neurotypical and Autistic Children (Original Taylor number = 45)

Correct citation:  Woods JS, Armel SE, Fulton DI, Allen J, Wessels K, Simmonds PL, Granpeesheh D, Mumper E, Bradstreet JJ, Echeverria D, Heyer NJ, Rooney JP. 2010 Urinary porphyrin excretion in neurotypical and autistic children.  Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Oct;118(10):1450-7. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901713. Epub 2010 Jun 24.

It is an article of belief in some circles that urinary porphyrin excretion abnormalities is a biomarker for autism.  However, the foundations of that belief rest upon studies performed by the disgraced and discredited Geier family (father and son).

Woods et al. 2010, the above article does not mention vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

51. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Original Taylor number = 46)

Correct citation: Rossignol DA, Frye RE Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis Molecular Psychiatry (2012) 17, 290–314; doi:10.1038/mp.2010.136; published online 25 January 2011

Review article, not study.  This paper has nothing to do with vaccines

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

52. Sensitization effect of thimerosal is mediated in vitro via reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling(Original Taylor number = 47)

Correct Citation: Migdal C, Foggia L, Tailhardat M, Courtellemont P, Haftek M, Serres M. Sensitization effect of thimerosal is mediated in vitro via reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling. Toxicology. 2010 Jul-Aug;274(1-3):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.04.016. Epub 2010 May 10.

In vitro study, thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

53.  What’s going on? The question of time trends in autism.(Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation: Blaxill MF. What’s going on? The question of time trends in autism. Public Health Rep. 2004 Nov-Dec;119(6):536-51.

Review of survey literature available in years prior to 2004. Outdated and superceded by many more reliable publications. Paper does not mention vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

54.  Vaccines and Autism. (Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation, Rimland B, McGinnis W, Vaccines and Autism, Laboratory medicine, september 2002 9: 33 708-717

An 11-year-old discursive article discussing the authors’ belief that something about the MMR vaccine and thimerosal is causal in autism.  Later studies found no autism connection with either factor.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

55. Theoretical aspects of autism: Causes—A review (Original Taylor number = 50)

Correct citation:  Ratajczak HV. Theoretical aspects of autism: causes–a review. J Immunotoxicol. 2011 Jan-Mar;8(1):68-79.

This is one of the more risible papers in Taylor’s list. See for example:

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

56. Ancestry of pink disease (infantile acrodynia) identified as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. (Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation: Shandley K, Austin DW. Ancestry of pink disease (infantile acrodynia) identified as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74(18):1185-94. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2011.590097.

Debunked at

http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/2011/07/30/ancestry-of-pink-disease-infantile-acrodynia-identified-as-a-risk-factor-for-autism-spectrum-disorders/

“This is, at best, a very strange paper. Consider these questions: 1) Why aren’t they reporting a high autism prevalence in the people who had very high mercury exposures and who showed signs of pink disease? If there is a genetic susceptibility, why isn’t it seen in those with the greatest exposures? 2) Why isn’t there a report of high autism prevalence in the children, just the grandchildren? My guess is that the response from some will be that the grandchildren received higher doses of mercury in vaccines than did their parents. Which again would beg the question of where is the high rate of autism in those exposed to the teething powders, especially those who developed pink disease.

The conclusions of this paper have some major logical hurdles to overcome, to say the least. And this is even before the methods are addressed. For example, this all hinges on reports by the grandparents. Not on an actual prevalence measure of the descendants.”

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

57. Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal. (Original Taylor number = 54)

Correct citation: Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Wierzba-Bobrowicz T, Majewska MD. Lasting neuropathological changes in rat brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal. Folia Neuropathol. 2010;48(4):258-69.

Rat study on thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines.

Note: lead researcher M Dorota Majewska seems to have specialized in rat studies that show thimerosal damage.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

58.  Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats. (Not in Taylor’s original list.)

Correct citation: Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Meyza K, Majewska MD. Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 30;223(1):107-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.04.026. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Rat study on thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines.

Note: lead researcher M Dorota Majewska seems to have specialized in rat studies that show thimerosal damage.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

59.  Risk Factors for Autistic Regression: Results of an Ambispective Cohort Study. (Original Taylor number = 56)

Correct citation: Zhang Y, Xu Q, Liu J, Li SC, Xu X. Risk factors for autistic regression: results of an ambispective cohort study. J Child Neurol. 2012 Aug;27(8):975-81. doi: 10.1177/0883073811430163. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Cohort study on 170 autistic Chinese children. Study does not mention vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

60.  Adverse events following 12 and 18 month vaccinations: a population-based, self-controlled case series analysis(Original Taylor number = 57.)

Correct citation: Wilson K, Hawken S, Kwong JC, Deeks S, Crowcroft NS, Van Walraven C, Potter BK, Chakraborty P, Keelan J, Pluscauskas M, Manuel D. Adverse events following 12 and 18 month vaccinations: a population-based, self-controlled case series analysis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e27897. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027897. Epub 2011 Dec 12.

Study of adverse events, as measured by emergency room visits or hospitalizations after vaccine receipt in a cohort of 456,000 Canadian toddlers.

“..one excess event for every 730 children vaccinated. The primary reason for increased events was statistically significant elevations in emergency room visits following all vaccinations. There were non-significant increases in hospital admissions. There were an additional 20 febrile seizures for every 100,000 vaccinated at 12 months.”

An interesting paper that has some implications for better fever management of infants following vaccination

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

61. Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. (Original Taylor number = 58)

Correct citation: Duszczyk-Budhathoki M, Olczak M, Lehner M, Majewska MD. Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Neurochem Res. 2012 Feb;37(2):436-47. doi: 10.1007/s11064-011-0630-z. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Rat study, thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines.

Note: lead researcher M Dorota Majewska seems to have specialized in rat studies that show thimerosal damage.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

62. Neonatal Administration of Thimerosal Causes Persistent Changes in Mu Opioid Receptors in the Rat Brain (Original Taylor number = 59)

Correct citation: Olczak M, Duszczyk M, Mierzejewski P, Bobrowicz T, Majewska MD. Neonatal administration of thimerosal causes persistent changes in mu opioid receptors in the rat brain. Neurochem Res. 2010 Nov;35(11):1840-7. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0250-z. Epub 2010 Aug 28.

Rat study, thimerosal (no longer used in U.S. childhood vaccines except for some influenza vaccines), concentrations higher than formerly found in vaccines.

Note: lead researcher M Dorota Majewska seems to have specialized in rat studies that show thimerosal damage.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

63. Unanswered Questions: A Review of Compensated Cases of Vaccine-Induced Brain Injury. (Original Taylor number=60)

Correct citation: Holland M, Conte L, Krakow R, Colin L, Unanswered Questions: A Review of Compensated Cases of Vaccine-Induced Brain Injury. Pace Environmental Law Review, vol. 28, no. 2, 2011

This was a very poor-quality review in a student-run law journal, with substantial ethical and methodological flaws.Debunked here:

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

64.  Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines. (Not on Taylor’s original list)

Correct citation: Dórea JG. Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines. Neurochem Res. 2011 Jun;36(6):927-38. doi: 10.1007/s11064-011-0427-0. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

In vitro study, with a small inclusion of a rat study.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

65.  Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa1-6 cells(Original Taylor number = 55)

Correct citation:  Hamza H, Cao J, Li X, Li C, Zhu M, Zhao S. Hepatitis B vaccine induces apoptotic death in Hepa1-6 cells. Apoptosis. 2012 May;17(5):516-27. doi: 10.1007/s10495-011-0690-1.

An in-vitro study of how mouse (murine) cells derived from a cancerous tumor react to being bathed in Hepatitis B vaccine.  No mention of autism.  No relevance to autism.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

66. Maternal thimerosal exposure results in aberrant cerebellar oxidative stress, thyroid hormone metabolism, and motor behavior in rat pups; sex- and strain-dependent effects. (Not in Taylor’s original list)

Correct citation:  Sulkowski ZL, Chen T, Midha S, Zavacki AM, Sajdel-Sulkowska EM. Maternal thimerosal exposure results in aberrant cerebellar oxidative stress, thyroid hormone metabolism, and motor behavior in rat pups; sex- and strain-dependent effects. Cerebellum. 2012 Jun;11(2):575-86. doi: 10.1007/s12311-011-0319-5.

Rat study looking at thimerosal, which is no longer used in childhood vaccines in the U.S. (with the exception of some influenza vaccines). No mention of autism.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

67.  The rise in autism and the role of age at diagnosis.(Not on Taylor’s original list)

Correct citation: Hertz-Picciotto I, Delwiche L. The rise in autism and the role of age at diagnosis. Epidemiology. 2009 Jan;20(1):84-90. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181902d15.

“Autism incidence in California shows no sign yet of plateauing. Younger ages at diagnosis, differential migration, changes in diagnostic criteria, and inclusion of milder cases do not fully explain the observed increases.”

Evidently, according to Taylor, that means that vaccine must account for the observed increases, while disregarding significant changes in demographic data, such as maternal and paternal age at first childbirth.

It is curious that Taylor does not include the other 18 papers on autism in which Hertz-Picciotto has been a contributing author,.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=((Hertz-Picciotto%20I%5BAuthor%5D)%20AND%20(%222009%2F1%2F1%22%5BDate%20-%20Publication%5D%20%3A%20%223000%22%5BDate%20-%20Publication%5D))%20AND%20autism%5BMeSH%20Major%20Topic%5D

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

68.  Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain (Not in Taylor’s previous list)

Correct citation:  Khan Z, Combadière C, Authier FJ, Itier V, Lux F, Exley C, Mahrouf-Yorgov M, Decrouy X, Moretto P, Tillement O, Gherardi RK, Cadusseau J. Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain. BMC Med. 2013 Apr 4;11:99. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-99.

This paper assumes that ‘Shoenfeld syndrome” or “Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants” (ASIA) is a real condition, not an artifact found by one group of researchers. It has not yet been verified. Athttp://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2013/08/09/antivaccinationists-against-the-hpv-vaccine-round-5000/, the blogger (a cancer researcher and surgeon) writes:

….an entity called ASIA (Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants). From what I’ve been able to tell, ASIA is basically a made-up syndrome that isn’t generally accepted….Even more dubious are the clinical criteria, four major and four minor, that are used to “diagnose” ASIA. The idea is that either two major criteria or one major and two minor criteria are required for a diagnosis of ASIA. Out of curiosity, I went back to what appears to be the original article in which ASIA was defined by Yehuda Shoenfeld, who is known for testifying for “vaccine injury” victims and running a journal sympathetic to antivaccine views, even publishing works by quacks like Mark and David Geier. The “syndrome” appears to have been made up of whole cloth based on unfounded assumptions.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

69.  Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed(Not in Taylor’s previous list)

Correct citation:  Blaxill MF, Redwood L, Bernard S.  Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(5):788-94.

Note that this paper is from 2004. Since that time, (1) Thimerosal has been removed from all pediatric vaccines, with the exception of some flu vaccines (2) Autism has continued to rise (3)The concerns about thimerosal have been addressed with epidemiological studies, and dismissed.   (4) The concerns about thimerosal have been given a thorough airing in the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program legal hearings (Autism Omnibus) and have been found to be baseless. For example

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

70.Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the SF Bay Area (Not in Taylor’s previous list)

Correct citation: Windham GC, Zhang L, Gunier R, Croen LA, Grether JK.  Autism spectrum disorders in relation to distribution of hazardous air pollutants in the san francisco bay area.  Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Sep;114(9):1438-44.

This and other environmental studies were discussed atAssociation Between Autism and Environmental Mercury Exposure Disappears Once Population Density is Controlled for

My primary criticism of these types of studies is that they are attempting to find a cause for an epidemiological phenomenon that could very well not require an environmental explanation. That is, administrative data (special education data in particular) is not equipped to tell us if there are real differences in the prevalence of autism from one region to the next. No screening has ever demonstrated that substantial differences in administrative prevalence between regions are not simply diagnostic differences.

This study does not address vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

71. Inflammatory Responses to Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine Among Pregnant Women (Not in Taylor’s previous list.)

Correct citation: Christian LM, Iams JD, Porter K, Glaser R. Inflammatory responses to trivalent influenza virus vaccine among pregnant women. Vaccine. 2011 Nov 8;29(48):8982-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.039. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Partial conclusions: “The inflammatory response elicited by vaccination is substantially milder and more transient than seen in infectious illness, arguing for the clinical value of vaccination. However, further research is needed to confirm that the mild inflammatory response elicited by vaccination is benign in pregnancy.”

Two subsequent studies, listed below, have confirmed the safety of trivalent influenza virus vaccines for pregnant women and the children whose mothers were vaccinated during pregnancy.

None of the 3 studies cited above mention autism.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

72. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and autism in a national birth cohort. Not in Taylor’s previous list.)

Correct citation:  Brown AS, Sourander A, Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki S, McKeague IW, Sundvall J, Surcel HM. Elevated maternal C-reactive protein and autism in a national birth cohort. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 22. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.197. [Epub ahead of print]

This study does not address vaccines.

Does this paper “demonstrate that vaccines can cause autism”?  No.

_______

And there you have it.

[Source: I Speak of Dreams: 1 (for 1-19), 2 (for 20-39), 3 (for 40-59, 4 (for 60-72), Full downloadable PDF version (for all)]

39 thoughts on “The Definitive Reference Guide to Debunking the Vaccine-Autism Myth

  1. Wow, thank you for this. I always suspected the vaccine theory was like a lot of conspiracy theories, with people very justifiably concerned about something urgent, but wasting their energy on the wrong target and ultimately betraying their own goals and interests.

  2. Pingback: More Pro-Vaccine Links – Vaccination does NOT cause autism | Happily Eccentric

  3. I expect you are right, none of those papers prove vaccines cause autism. But they indicate it. Can you please point me at a peer-reviewed empirical study on the safety of injecting vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants to infants in the first months, one that actually reports empirical results suggesting such injections safe. In an extensive search, I’ve found a small number of peer-reviewed papers on the subject, but they all report results indicative of damage and danger. I can’t find a single peer-reviewed empirical result supporting safety. I want either an epidemiological study on aluminum showing, opposite to Tomjanovic and Shaw, that patients receiving aluminum adjuvants early and often did not develop autism more than patients not receiving such adjuvants, or animal studies involving injections into pre-weaning neonates showing they develop normally. All of the studies of that type I’m aware of, and there are several, show developmental brain damage.

    If neither of those exist, while 70 poor studies find a connection, what is your reason for thinking vaccines don’t cause autism?

    • Rather than answer your question, I’m just going to say that one of my biggest pet peeves is people who say ‘several studies show that…’ and then don’t cite a single source while asking me to cite a paper or two. This is called ‘shifting the burden of proof,’ meaning you’ve rigged it so that instead of having to prove yourself right, I have to prove you wrong. If there are several studies, then I’m sure you wouldn’t mind directing me to one (doesn’t even have to be a link, the title, authors, and journal will do).

      But if that’s the way you’re gonna play it, here’s an opposite of the Tomljenovic and Shaw paper. It’s not a peer-reviewed paper but it’s a pretty harsh critique of the study and its methods: http://leftbrainrightbrain.co.uk/2013/07/10/comment-on-do-aluminum-vaccine-adjuvants-contribute-to-the-rising-prevalence-of-autism/

      • I did provide a citation, to Tomlejonovic and Shaw, your paper number 2 above. You have attempted to refute the paper as an epidemiological study. Good for you. However, you have ignored section 4.2 of T&S which makes an apparently very strong case that aluminum adjuvants are not easily removed by the kidneys, which I think if proved would be the death knell for aluminum adjuvants, and especially section 4.3, which makes an apparently very strong case, based on animal injection studies and the like, that aluminum adjuvants injected during early development cause brain damage and other serious problems. Your link in the reply, which I’d already seen, also ignored these sections.

        However, I am not asking you to directly rebut those sections, although I would be interested in that also. I am asking you, if you would be so kind, to provide citation to a peer-reviewed empirical result (or results) supporting safety. I want either an epidemiological study on aluminum showing, opposite to T. and Shaw, that patients receiving aluminum adjuvants early and often did not develop autism more than patients not receiving such adjuvants, or animal studies involving injections into pre-weaning neonates showing they develop normally. All of the studies of those types I’m aware of, and there are several, show developmental brain damage.

        I’m fairly confident the reason you haven’t supplied one is that they don’t exist, based on my literature search. Survey authors never provide one. For example, Quoting from Vaccine 20 (2002) S1–S4 Conference report Workshop summary: Aluminum in vaccines

        “There seems to be abundant data concerning risk levels for ingested aluminum, but scant data about risk levels for injected aluminum. The oral minimum risk level, for example, appears to be in the range of 2–60 mg/kg of aluminum per day but there are no comparable data for injected aluminum.”

        Other 21st century surveys I’ve looked at also cite no paper giving actual empirical results of the type I want, one of them cited as its sole reference on side effects a 1984 survey that said the following in its abstract:
        “To date, the question of adjuvant safety has not been resolved and represents the major obstacle to the orderly development of adjuvanted vaccines. The fear of inducing cancer and other immediate or long-term perturbations of the immune system must be patently and rationally overcome by basic and applied experimentation and by the development of appropriate guidelines for studies in humans.”

        I don’t believe such experiments have ever been done, except for ones like those cited by T&S that show brain damage and the like.

        So I want help finding a peer-reviewed empirical study on the safety of injecting vaccines containing aluminum adjuvants to infants in the first months, one that actually reports empirical results suggesting such injections safe. In an extensive search, I’ve found a number of peer-reviewed papers on the subject, but they all report results indicative of damage and danger. I can’t find a single peer-reviewed empirical result supporting safety of injected aluminum adjuvants in the first months, and believe no such study exists.

        • If the link doesn’t work, it’s called “Increasing Exposure to Antibody-Stimulating Proteins and Polysaccharides in Vaccines Is Not Associated with Risk of Autism” by Frank DeStefano, Cristofer S. Price, and Eric S. Weintraub

          • I’ve read that before. It doesn’t study aluminum adjuvants. It compares people based on how much “antibody-stimulating protein and polysaccharide antigens” they have got, not how much aluminum they got in the first few months of life. So it compares one group of vaccinated individuals to another group of vaccinated individuals, but there’s no reason to believe the one group had more aluminum than the other, so even if early injections of aluminum adjuvants caused autism, it wouldn’t find it.
            In fact, since DTP scores 3004 on table 1, anybody who got DTP scored over 3004 antigens, and anybody who didn’t have it (or Typhooid) scored at most a few dozen, what Stefano really did
            was to compare people who got DTP to people who got other vaccines such as DTaP, but did not get DTP. This is of very little interest I think in answering whether vaccines cause autism, and zero interest in answering my question about aluminum adjuvants.

            The Stefano study is even more frustrating, because if they reanalyzed their data to look at adjuvants, changing table 1 so it looked at adjuvant content rather than antigens, they could maybe do it. But they haven’t. It almost looks like they are deliberately avoiding the question.

            I still don’t think there is a single study in the literature that looks at aluminum adjuvant exposure and comes to the conclusion they seem safe.

            • First, here’s a link to something on vaccines and autism on the Center for Disease Control website which cites several articles that you could read on the matter: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html

              Secondly, I don’t understand why you’re talking about aluminum adjuvants. The vaccine that caused this controversy was the measels, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine which doesn’t contain adjuvants of any kind: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html

              Now stop dropping scientific jargon like you know what you’re talking about.

              • You are right that there are/were concerns about thimerosal and autism. However, there are also concerns about aluminum adjuvants. The top two papers on your original post list above are both about aluminum adjuvants and autism. And the fact that the CDC gives lists of reassuring papers and none of them are on aluminum adjuvants just makes my point: (So far as I have been able to uncover, and I’ve looked pretty hard),
                No peer-reviewed studies regarding injection of aluminum adjuvants into kids or animals at very early ages have ever been published that don’t suggest they do brain and other damage.

                FYI I’m a physics PhD who’s been reading the vaccine literature for months now. I believe I know what I’m talking about.

                • The people who study the relationship between aluminum adjuvants and autism already assume that this relationship exists and if their data doesn’t support a link between the two, they manipulate the data so that there appears to be a link. Often times, these studies are funded by people who want there to be a link, even though there is none. At this point, these studies become less scientific and more political. It’s very bad science and really bad for science. I’m sure you with your Ph.D in physics would know what bad science looks like.😉 Meanwhile, studies that go the other way (aluminum adjuvants don’t cause autism) are not undertaken because it’s already taken for granted among scientists who don’t work for lobbyists that the link doesn’t exist.

                  Also, just because you have a Ph.D doesn’t mean you know what you’re talking about. It just means it’s harder to convince you that you don’t know what you’re talking about. In addition to all of that, to declare that vaccines cause autism is to ignore how vaccines actually work. I know this because I took Introduction to Biology in college and I’m not stupid.

                • While there may not be the formal studies on the safety of aluminum adjuvants, if you just look at the mg amounts of aluminum in vaccines and compare that to the common levels of aluminum we get from other safe stuff that’s much higher, it would be rather surprising to find it the source of significant danger. I suspect this is a probable reason for the lack of studies.

                  • Unfortunately, your argument (although it has been made by for example, Children’s Hospital of Pennsylvania) is not valid. The problem is that the dietary system flushes 99.75% of ingested aluminum into the poop (which has been measured in rabbits etc.). As a result of that, babies get 100’s of times as much aluminum from vaccines (into their blood) as from breast milk. There are published studies showing this, even measuring it at up to 1000 times as much aluminum from vaccines as breast milk. eg “Infants’ exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months”, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology Volume 20, Issue 7, November 2010, Pages 598-601 Dórea JG, Marques RC

                  • Also, I didn’t say there weren’t studies. There are lots of studies. The problem is, all the studies show that the aluminum (and indeed simply injecting antigens into neonates to provoke a strong immune response) causes brain damage. There are no studies showing it doesn’t, but lots of studies showing it does.

                    • “The problem is that the dietary system flushes 99.75% of ingested aluminum into the poop (which has been measured in rabbits etc.)”. Someone with a degreee in a biological science can correct me if I’m wrong, but I think that regardless of whether aluminium was ingested, or injected, the same thing would happen to it (any excess would be filtered out of the blood in the kidney).

                    • If you go to http://whyarethingsthisway.com/2014/03/08/example-1-pediatrician-belief-is-opposite-the-published-scientific-evidence-on-early-vaccine-safety/
                      you’ll find a survey I wrote on the issue of early adjuvanted vaccine safety. Reference 2 section 4.2 discusses these issues, and I think I have a link to the full text of it. The short answer is, AlOH is apparently not rapidly eliminated by the kidneys, and especially when bound up with antigens, which is how its presented in vaccines. I also cite and link animal studies reporting that if you inject vaccine relevant amounts of aluminum into neonate mice and rats, you get developmental brain damage.

                    • Total parents real nutrition (TPN) has aluminum in it (there’s no way around it) and is given IV. Search on PubMed for studies on the neurologic outcomes of preterm infants given TPN with various amounts of aluminum. You will find a lot of information that should give you some perspective on this.

                      Also read the Mitkus, 2011 paper and the references.

                • “No peer-reviewed studies regarding injection of aluminum adjuvants into kids or animals at very early ages have ever been published that don’t suggest they do brain and other damage.”

                  I don’t understand how you can say this. That’s basically discounting all the safety studies that have been done on vaccines contaning aluminum adjuvants. You can’t just go on PubMed and search aluminum adjuvant safety. You have to look at which vaccines contain aluminum and then search for the safety studies on those vaccines.

                  You have to also have an understanding of how aluminum is dealt with by the body, i.e., that 95% is excreted by the kidney and that what is left is distributed in the body with about half going to the bone and less than 1% going to the brain. Once you understand this, you realize that it doesn’t make sense that aluminum would cause problems in the brain without causing bone problems.

                  You mentioned a study in rabbits concerning ingestion of aluminum. There was also a study on aluminum adjuvants in rabbits by Flarend, 1997 that measured urinary excretion of injected aluminum.

    • I’m not going to go back to the Shaw paper now, but I’ve seen it before. The aluminum in adjuvants is a salt. When it reaches the interstitial fluid is it solubilized by citrate and other anions.

  4. Pingback: Yes, the autism rate is rising–vaccines aren't the cause

  5. This is NOT science; and nor is it debunking any scientific study showing the connection between vaccines and autism. The denialist trash blogs of Gorski and Left Brain Right Brain are not scientific studies, and nor are they even remotely to be considered honest nor scientists. He is an example of Gorki’s science angry personal attacks, reinterpretation of a study by use of speculation as to what happening and reinterpreting the findings and meaning. Then has his scientific references, he re-links to his own past written pages, with no science nor equivalent study ever available to refute the study he is addressing. Skeptical Raptor is another source these (you) people seem to like to reference to when you are asked for the vaccine safety science; and again S.R. is made of the same tabloid style fabric of denial and complete with their angry attacks on the vaccine truth, the real independent science, and anyone that puts it forward. Nothing could be more in denial of the facts and reality, preposterous.

    • The difference is that many of the articles used by anti-vaccination website authors (1) don’t meet the criteria of pathophysiologic plausibility, and (2) have findings that aren’t replicated

  6. TIL Lowell Hubbs is an idiot. Your post, Lowell, is not a scientific study, therefore it does not defend the position that vaccines cause autism.

    (This is fun!)

  7. If this blogger was consistent they could apply this logic to deny any scientific paper. Does this prove x? No. Denied. What a waste of time denying research. My favorite of the bunch that I perused was reading the denial for #69. Wow.

    • It’s not a waste if time. Angryautie provided a brief overview and links to rebuttals. If you really want to seek the truth for yourself,you need to take the time to read all these articles AND THE ORIGINAL REFERENCES.

      What is your issue with point #69? Did you read the article? Angryautie referenced an article from the journal, Pediatrics:

      “Conclusions: In our study of MCO [managed care organization] members, prenatal and early-life exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was not related to increased risk of ASDs.”

      Read the study for yourself, then if you have an issue make an intelligent comment about it. It’s so hypocritical for you to criticize angryauntie with a comment void of content.

  8. Pingback: Feed the Machine? | J. Dallace Blair

  9. Why do the guns come out blazing on any autism study but the conventional science gets a pass?

    For example chop states on its web page the amount of aluminum consumed vs the infected aluminum vaccine content. It does not explain less 1 percent of ingested aluminum is absorbed.

    Why does the conventional wisdom get a pass?

    • I can understand your concern. The reality is that the data is there to support the safety of aluminum adjuvants (see paper by Mitkus, et al, 2011) but that this can’t all be summarized easily for the general public. The CHOP website just shows that we are exposed to aluminum in our daily life. The route of administration is clearly important. When corrections are made for absorption (from injection vs oral) the amount absorbed from vaccines is far below the minimal risk levels for aluminum.

  10. A trauma surgeon actually read and commented on each of the (now) 124 papers.

    “AND THAT IS IT. As I was going through every single paper in this list, it became increasingly clear that Ginger simply went to Pubmed, typed in her search terms (thimerosal, mercury, oxidative stress, autism, heavy metals), and copied the links without bothering to read or understand what the hell she was reading. Of the 124 papers presented, exactly -0- of them proves any link between vaccines and autism, and a few even disprove any link. I sincerely doubt that any antivaxxer who sprays this list around the Twitterverse (or anywhere else) has read any of these papers, let alone all of them. Having now read every single one, I feel . . . well, I feel exactly the same.”

    http://www.docbastard.net/2016/05/124-papers-that-do-not-prove-vaccines.html

  11. Sorry, no amount of tobacco science will ever hide the truth.. millions and millions now know, the number is growing by the day.. the statistical probability is infinitesimal that each and every case of regressive autism following vaccinations are ALL “just a coincidence”… even if someone were to claim that a single such case was 99% likely to be a coincidence- for 2000 such cases to ALL be coincidental there is a 0.00000018637566 % chance ….  tragically the actual number of children regressing into autism is around 20,000 per year- the possibility that ALL of those cases are just coincidental would be 5.0569883e-88. add to that impossibility, the notion that EVERY single study that links autism and vaccines is “flawed”.. that every single case of damages being awarded to autistic kids for vaccine injuries are all just “mistakes”.. that every single expert, scientist, or doctor who publicly warns of brain damage and autism as a result of vaccines are ALL “quacks”.. that multiple other lab analyses have confirmed wakefield’s findings, but they are all “flawed or in cahoots with Wakefield”..   that every single incidence of important facts being hidden from the public are all explainable because “they aren’t important”.. Japan banned the MMR, but americans never heard about it at all.. the CDC’s William Thompson’s statements have been blacked out of the media..  honest people do NOT hide important evidence or information- the coverup is proof of guilt. . there is no valid reason that critically important stories should be hidden- anyone continuing to trust those corrupt sources has chosen to stay in the dark.. thousands and thousands of normal children regress into autism each year.. the study below clearly documents the fact, even though the researchers have blindly swallowed the ridiculous “coincidence” theory
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/12/041203100809.htm


  12. any honest person will see very quickly that a mountain of evidence showing vaccines and the vaccination schedule are causing stunning harm.. but, that is if a person is willing to actually look at the evidence.. did you hear that many doctors in France are rejecting vaccines? if not, then you are being manipulated.. if you care about the truth, please do honest research that comes from independent and honest sources. According to a recent presentation by European Ecology MEP (Member of the European Parliament) Michèle Rivasi, vaccine safety, “as a general rule, is being questioned” [in France].3 Rivasi went on to say:

    Between 2005 and 2010, the proportion of French people in favour or very in favour of vaccination dropped from 90% to 60% (2013 INPES Peretti-Watel health barometer). The percentage of French people between the ages of 18 and 75 who are anti-vaccination increased from 8.5% in 2005 to 38.2% in 2010. In 2005, 58% of doctors questioned the usefulness of vaccines administered to children while 31% of doctors were expressing doubts about vaccine safety. These figures must surely have increased since then.3 http://www.thevaccinereaction.org/2015/08/the-french-national-debate-on-vaccine-safety/

  13. if you believe the propaganda that “it’s just a conspiracy theory” that big pharma would hide the damage it is doing with vaccines, then you are being manipulated by the very criminal industry that is causing terrible damage to kids every day.. Merck made a “hit list” of doctors who criticized Vioxx, according to testimony in a Vioxx class action case in Australia. The list, emailed between Merck employees, contained doctors’ names with the labels “neutralise,” “neutralised” or “discredit” next to them.

    According to The Australian, Merck emails from 1999 showed company execs complaining about doctors who disliked using Vioxx. One email said:

    We may need to seek them out and destroy them where they live …

    The plaintiffs’ lawyer gave this assessment:

    It gives you the dark side of the use of key opinion leaders and thought leaders … if (they) say things you don’t like to hear, you have to neutralise them … It does suggest a certain culture within the organisation about how to deal with your opponents and those who disagree with you.

    The Australian:

    The court was told that James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University, wrote to the then Merck head Ray Gilmartin in October 2000 to complain about the treatment of some of his researchers who had criticised the drug.

    “Even worse were allegations of Merck damage control by intimidation,” he wrote, … “This has happened to at least eight (clinical) investigators … I suppose I was mildly threatened myself but I never have spoken or written on these issues.”

    The allegations come on the heels of revelations that Merck created a fake medical journal — the Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine — in which to publish studies about Vioxx; had pop songs commissioned about Vioxx to inspire its staff, and paid ghostwriters to draft articles about the drug. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/merck-created-hit-list-to-destroy-neutralize-or-discredit-dissenting-doctors/

  14. You have not debunked any autism studies by linking to sites like Scienceblogs and left brain right brain. These are all shill sites that slant science for their own ends. Normal people do not take them seriously. You also link to other studies that supposedly debunk the vaccine autism studies. Who paid for those studies? Two thirds of all clinical trials are done by the pharmaceuticals, and are all suspect. See this from the BMJ.
    http://www.nogracias.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/deben-las-revistas-dejar-de-publicar-articulos-de-la-industria-bmj.pdf Says Pharma studies are even worse than the tobacco company studies. You have not debunked anything.

  15. I have no idea if vaccines cause autism, but I don’t think you have debunked anything.
    Using sites like Scienceblogs, LeftBrainRightBrain is not science. These are industry shill sites that slant science to their own agenda’s. The other studies you link to, well Unless I know who paid for them, I would never trust them. See here, all studies down by the Industry are suspect.
    http://www.nogracias.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/deben-las-revistas-dejar-de-publicar-articulos-de-la-industria-bmj.pdf
    The studies may have been done well, but it is the write up afterwords, is were they fudge the data.

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